In common practice, biotechnology is the application of all the knowledge of biology to a practical and applied form, and on the basis of this knowledge, techniques, materials, compounds are developed from which human development, happiness and benefits are derived.
Bio-life is a technology based on living things or their products but the basic condition is that the technology or product is human.
The target organisms are algae, fungi, yeasts, bacteria, viruses, plants and animals.Biotechnology plays an important and fundamental role in various fields like pharmaceutical production, disease diagnosis, food production, energy production, agriculture, seed treatment,disease treatment, medical and health research.
Biotechnology play a pivotal role in diagnosis of disease:
The science of biotechnology has added tests and examinations to the diagnosis of diseases with the help of which we can easily diagnose the disease. Its specificity is up to 99 percent as compared to other examinations. After performing these tests we can report up to 90% accurate diagnosis of the disease and the patient.
Medicinal Biotechnology is a branch of biotechnology that deals with the development of drugs and how to increase their effectiveness. Biotechnology plays a major role in the development of medicines, such as insulin, which is used in various vaccines for diabetes, interferon for yellow fever or HCV, and so on. Research in biotechnology and development centers is progressing rapidly to develop drugs for diseases for which no cure has yet been developed, such as Corona or Covid 19, AIDS or HIV, and other dangerous diseases.Antibiotics are medicines obtained from germs and used to kill and treat bacterial diseases. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major challenge today. Biotechnology plays a key role in the production of new and highly effective antibiotics that need to be discussed.
The branch of biotechnology that conducts research for the development of agriculture is called Green Biotechnology or Agriculture Biotechnology. The department works on seed improvement to achieve better quality yields. Plants are genetically modified to produce environmentally friendly crops such as more crops on less land, crops that are resistant to heat and cold, crops that are resistant to insects and worms, crops that are resistant to diseases, and so on. Large fruit in size and other similar efficient and useful crops.
Fermentation is the production of high levels of chemicals by microbes. The branch of biotechnology in which the process of fermentation is used to produce a variety of compounds or chemicals is called fermentation biotechnology. This branch of biotechnology has an industry and factory level role in many products such as pharmaceutical production, food production, enzyme production and so on that plays a very important role in human life.
Veterinary or Animal Biotechnology:
The department focuses on the breeding of high quality animals. For example, producing cows that produce a lot of milk or produce a lot of meat. Also increase the production of efficient and original breeds of animals such as easy or specific breeds of cattle to reduce defective and inefficient breeds. It can produce up to 50 animals a year from a specific breed. We can also get our favorite animals as a result of genetic mutations.
Gene therapy is also an important branch of biotechnology used to treat genetic or maternal diseases. In this technology, a defective or inactive gene is converted into a healthy or active gene to produce or reactivate its normal proteins. This is because genes in maternal diseases stop or become inactive, such as cancers Thalassemia, SCID and Color Blind, Hemophilia.It is worth mentioning that research in this area is in full swing to complete the treatment of maternal diseases which is not very successful so far.