Precision Medicine

 Precision medicine is a modern concept in Medical field that is focused on the customization of health care by deciding treatments and practices tailoring them precisely for individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease.The promise of personalized medicine is “therapy with the right drug in the right dose to the right patient”.Through diagnostic testing appropriate and optimal therapies are proposed specifically for the genetic set of patient. Genetic information of the patient plays a vital role in certain aspects of precision medicine.

Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort Program

Precision medicine Initiative Cohort Program popularly known as ALL OF US RESEARCH PROGRAM was launched by President Barak Obama in 2015 with an initial funding of $130 Million that was aimed to advance the tailoring of individualized medicine. National Institute of Health runs ALL OF US initiative under Eric Dishman. Initially, the aim was to collect genetic data from 1 Million volunteers.

Precision Medicine in Pakistan

National Centre of Big Data and Cloud Computing inaugurated Precision Medicine Lab in Peshawar funded by HEC and hosted by IIB at CECOS and RMI, the first initiative of its kind in Pakistan. The project aims to improve individual patient outcomes by bringing data analytics to clinics by establishing the first genomics database.

How Precision Medicine Works

Physicians first of all figure out if a particular mutation is associated to a certain disease. Therefore, they perform “Genome-Wide Association Study”. GWAS study is a measure to determine which mutation is responsible for a particular disease. Once a particular mutation is identified to be responsible for causing a particular disease, it becomes easier to find that disease in future patients by looking at their genetic information.

Once the case is defined for a particular patient, clinicians are able to determine the set of therapies and medications in order to increase the response to customized medical approach and reduce the effects of other drugs. In conventional medicine for-example combined therapies have adverse effects as well.

Applications

  • As a diagnostic way, genotyping gives the potential to identify the susceptibility of a person to developing a particular disease. For example the genotyping of women for particular mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene can reveal the predisposition to breast cancer or ovarian cancer because of a family history. Having such genetic information measures can be taken for particular cases to reduce the chances of developing that disease or delay its onset.
  • Currently in medicine, physicians follow a trial and error strategy to find an effective treatment. With precision medicine we will be able to specifically tailor a particular treatment for an individual with improved chances of response as the genetic information provides a predictability measure into how the patient will respond to treatment.

 

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